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Conservation Social Science (ConSoSci) partnership is leveraging social science to strengthen conservation outcomes.

Key Concepts

ConSoSci offers a robust technology stack and template solutions to support partners with data collection, data management, and analysis. To better understand the solution options and value delivered, please read the following overview of key concepts, components, and terms refered throughout the solution documentation and training sessions.


The ConSoSci stack provides an integrated solution to support your complete data cycle, from data collection and maangement, to integration and analysis. The solution is made of separate components or tools that support different steps in the data cycle. consosci-stack

In broad terms, integration is the process of connecting different systems, components, and/or services to work together functionally as one. Data integration, specifically, involves integrating disparate data sources and systems in a way that focuses on increasing value to the data users. In the ConSoSci stack, we leverage separate tools that support different steps in the data cycle (incl. Kobo for data collection and ConSoSci Connect for data management and analysis), which are integrated using the OpenFn platform. These solutions may also be extended/modified to integrate with other data sources, if desired.


OpenFn ( is an integration platform that provides secure, scalable infrastructure for integrating data and automating business processes. In short, OpenFn helps organizations spend less time processing and sharing data, and more time focussing on their core work.

For ConSoSci, OpenFn is the “plumbing” or infrastructure connecting the different tools in the ConSoSci technology stack, helping to exchange data, integrate disparate systems, and automate data cleaning and business process steps. OpenFn can be implemented to (1) automatically extract data from Kobo Toolbox or other data sources, (2) clean and map data elements, (3) load data into other destination systems, and (4) perform duplicate-checking operations. openfn-connects

OpenFn’s platform centers around jobs, which are “low-code” integration scripts or workflows that can be automated or run on-demand. Learn more about jobs. See example job to insert data collected for Sharks and Rays via Kobo Toolbox into a connected database.

upsert('table__SharksAndRays_Survey', 'answerid',
        formId: dataValue('formId'), 
        answerId: dataValue('_id'),
        site: dataValue('country'),
        boatType: dataValue('boat'),
        targetCatch: dataValue('boat/target_catch'),
        weight: dataValue('boat/catch_details/weight'),
        //DB_Column: answer_to_FormQuestion

To learn more about OpenFn generally and its suite of open source integration tools, see OpenFn Documentation. Also check out the…

KoBo Toolbox

Kobo Toolbox (see documentation) is a suite of tools for field data collection for use in challenging environments. The software is free and open source and works both on and offline.

Kobo primarily offers a mobile application for data collection. Users will create data collection tools or surveys called projects or forms. Then, field data collectors will fill out these different forms, submitting form submissions to record forms responses. kobo-shots

Kobo also offers a web app for aggregating form submissions collected in the field, which provides basic data management and data cleaning functions. However, data management and analysis functions are limited, so typically users via export the data via CSV export options and/or REST APIs for automated data integration. If you’ve worked with data collection tools like ODK, ONA, or SurveyCTO, these are very similar mobile data collection apps.

To learn more about Kobo, check out…

ConSoSci Connect

ConSoSci Connect is a data solution in development to deliver secure data storage, centralized management, analysis and visualization tools for social science data. It provides automated queries and analyses indicators such as the Basic Necessities Survey (BNS) and Natural Resource Governance Tool (NRGT), and visualize and share the results in compelling dashboards and reports. This enables users to easily monitor progress towards these indicators in near real-time, as well as run further custom analysis to dissect and investigate social science data collected across sites. consosci-dashboard

Databases (PostgreSQL, MSSQL)

PostgreSQL and Microsoft MSSQL are common types of relational databases. PostgreSQL is the underlying database infrastructure for ConSoSci Connect and is an open-source database option for those looking to configure their own database. Such databases can be accessed and manipulated using SQL (Structured Query Language). Queries can be used to extract or load data, as well as structure data to feed into reports and analytics.

Example SQL script that will insert rows of data into a database table:

INSERT INTO TABLE_NAME (column1, column2, column3,...columnN)  
VALUES (value1, value2, value3,...valueN);


API stands for Application Programming Interface, which is a software intermediary that allows applications to talk to each other. APIs provide a set of definitions and protocols for building and integrating application software. They’re sometimes referred to as a “contract” between an information provider and an information user. APIs establish the content required from the consumer (the “request”) and the content required by the producer (the “response”).

In other words, if you want to interact with a system to retrieve information or perform a function, an API helps you communicate what you want to that system so it can understand and fulfill the request. In the ConSoSci stack, OpenFn sends scheduled requests to the Kobo API in order to extract data collected in the field, and then load it into a destination database like ConSoSci Connect. api

Read on for the more technical bits…

Planning to personally interact and configure the technology in the ConSoSci stack? Check out the following for more information on concepts core to the technical workings of the solutions.


Systems integration will leverage APIs to extract and load data to/from an application, commonly leveraging REST or RESTful APIs, which supports interactions using web services. REST stands for “representational state transfer” and describes the architecture of the API, which takes advantage of HTTP. Using HTTP requests and responses, information can be sent in multiple formats (JSON, HTML, PHP, Plain Text, etc.). Read more here.

Check out the Kobo API:

HTTP Requests

HTTP is the foundation of any data exchange on the Web and it is a client-server protocol, which means requests are initiated by the recipient. When you open your webbrowser and go to a website (e.g.,, you are the “client” initiating a HTTP request to access a website.

REST APIs most commonly support the following types of HTTP requests:

  • GET - Asks the server to retrieve a resource
  • POST - Asks the server to create a new resource
  • PUT - Asks the server to edit/update an existing resource
  • DELETE - Asks the server to delete a resource


For example, if you want to “get” or extract data collected via a mobile data collection app like Kobo Toolbox (see Kobo’s API docs), you might send a HTTP request that looks something like this…

GET https://kf.kobotoolbox/api/v2/assets/{form-uuid}/data/

You could send this HTTP request on-demand via your computer using a cURL command or an application like Postman, or you could develop a software program to automate this… OR leverage OpenFn to quickly write a “job” to send these requests automatically or on-demand.

In these ConSoSci integration solutions, OpenFn is frequently making HTTP requests to GET data from Kobo Toolbox and to then load it into the relevant destination database, running SQL scripts to execute database operations (e.g., insert, select, etc.).


JSON stands for JavaScript Object Notation. JSON is a lightweight format for storing and transporting data, commonly used for transporting data across the web. If we extract form submissions from Kobo Toolbox, for example, the data collected can be returned in JSON format that looks like this…

    "formName": "Vegetation Survey", 
    "_id": "21020919", 
    "submissionDate": "2021-03-21", 
    "species_code": "20391", 
    "species_type": "shrub"

JSON characteristically is made of key:value pairs (e.g., "kobo_question": "answer").

OpenFn Jobs

OpenFn jobs define the specific series of tasks or database actions to be performed when a triggering message is received (event-based) or a pre-scheduled (and recurring) time is reached.

Using a tool like OpenFn, JSON can then be easily mapped to another database or application using jobs. For example, this is a job that creates records in a database table_KoboForm and maps Kobo questions to database columns.

    date: dataValue('submissionDate'),
    answerId: dataValue('_id'),
    columnOne: dataValue('kobo_question1'),
    columnTwo: dataValue('kobo_question2'),

Javascript is the “lingua franca” for coding jobs on OpenFn. Javascript is one of the most common languages in the world (ranking as the #1 most popular and one of the least expensive on StackOverflow’s 2020 Developer Survey), and Node.js (our runtime) is the most popular framework in its class. With Javascript, the custom transformation possibilities are extensive (e.g., reformat data values, create or concatenate new values/identifiers, re-categorize or “tag” data values before sending data to a destination system).

On top of the Javascript base, we’ve developed a LISP-like syntax (operator, operands) that further simplifies the job writing process and exposes common transformations via “helper functions” (insert(...), update(...), getForms(...)). Some OpenFn users with no programming experience (but familiarity with Microsoft Excel syntax) have learned how to write jobs.

ConSoSci OpenFn solutions offer automation that will auto-generate jobs based on Kobo forms, as well as the option for users to write their own jobs. For users hoping to write their own jobs, if jobs require complex data transformation and cleaning, strong knowledge of JavaScript is recommended. See OpenFn Documentation for more technical documentation on job execution.

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